Uday S. Bhawalkar, Director, *Sarita U. Bhawalkar, Research Assistant
Bhawalkar Ecological Research Institute (BERI), Pune 411009, India
*Author for correspondence, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
India, products of the holy cow (milk, urine, dung) have traditionally
been used as resources for ecosanitation. This technique was well
developed and used extensively, even if its science may not have
been well understood. With increased use of man-made chemicals for
agriculture and in animal feed, the quality of these resources deteriorated,
and modern science promoted chemical sanitation methods. These are
not only costly but also have serious environmental implications
novel eco-friendly eco-sanitation product, BIOSANITIZER, has been
developed by the Bhawalkar Ecological Research Institute (BERI –
formerly Bhawalkar Earthworm Research Institute),Pune(India). BIOSANITIZER
is a naturally produced catalyst that continues to produce need-based
amount of active oxygen and drives eco-logical reactions that clean
polluted water(surface water, groundwater and wastewater). This
oxygen-rich water also becomes a resource for ecosanitation. It
can be sprayed to sanitize soil, garbage heaps, medical waste, and
animal carcasses. The spraying also controls odor, pathogens, and
pests such as mosquitoes, flies, cockroaches, and rats. This paper
describes some successful applications of BIOSANITIZER and the authors’
model about its action.
can best be developed by studying the emerging branches of ecology
and ecological engineering. Man is also an integral part of ecology,
and has lived in harmony with nature for about half million years.
Hence one can also get hints from traditional ecological management
practices. These are relevant to each agro-climatic region of the
world. Indian agriculture and Indian culture, in general, is based
on the importance of a cow, its utility made it sacred. Why were
the products (urine, dung, and milk/milk derivatives such as ghee)
generated from the holy cow, traditionally, used for ecosanitation?
Why is the water of the Holy Ganga (especially near its origin)
still considered a resource for ecosanitation? Ganga water cannot
be expected to retain the self-cleansing power when it gets overloaded
with urban and industrial wastes. Similarly, the cow, which eats
polluted fodder, grown with the use of chemical fertilizers, or
grown on polluted water, cannot give bio-products that can be as
useful for ecosanitation as they used to be in the past.
understand how the cow-products and the Ganga water used to achieve
ecosanitation and why they got spoiled, an Eco-Logic was developed
as a tool to interpret ecological data. When Eco-Logic was used
to analyze natural bio-processes, traditions, and several industrial
bio-processes, it was observed that nitrates were of critical importance
in all these processes, deciding the niche of diverse organisms.
Nitrates are a resource; wasting them creates sanitation problems.
Cow-products and Ganga-water had mechanisms to lock these wasted
nitrates and hence served as means of ecosanitation. The logic behind
this methodology resulted in the creation of the BIOSANITIZER technology.
Eco-Logic is distilled from an intense study of ecology and ecological
engineering(Bhawalkar, 1997). It can be summarized as follows:
has a role.
body structure and function help facilitate its role.
of each organism is controlled by the task before the organism.
could be divided into two categories: resource converters (K-selected)
and waste controllers (r-selected).
organisms are hidden, quiet, and pleasant, whereas r-selected
organisms are visible, highly mobile, and unpleasant in their
is an indication of waste of resources. Pollution controllers
(r-selected organisms) cause human suffering, to variable extent,
so as to draw our attention to the waste and appeal for preventive
the organism, the more productive it is.
cull their prey selectively to remove defective young and ineffective
old, thus increasing productivity of the prey.
(function station) has one organism with a specific function
and specific food. If two organisms try to occupy the same niche,
the more effective one gets selected.
breeding is an indication that the organism is playing its role
are self-designed and self-improving. They are self-controlled,
thus aimed at resource conservation and sustainability. Each
organism gives an additional capability to the ecosystem. Biodiversity,
thus, improves the ecosystem performance.
Earth behaves as a self-controlled ecosystem. Even abiotic components
such as lightening, storms, tornadoes, floods, droughts, global
warming, ozone layer depletion, forest fires, earthquakes, and
volcanoes are corrective in action and contribute to ecosystem
stability in the long run. These unpleasant phenomena could
be managed by going to their root cause: the waste of resources
model evolved as a logical outcome when Nature, together with India’s
traditional practices and some industrial processes were analyzed
using the Eco-Logic(Bhawalkar, 1997). The model can be summarized
1. Plants are the sole converters of pollution (nitrates and carbon
dioxide) into food, fuel, timber, medicines, and several industrial
raw materials. This is crucial in today’s world because man
has taken up mining of non-renewable resources in a big way and
has now, realized that this cannot be sustained for long.
2. Nitrates (and other inorganic nutrients) and carbon dioxide are
resources when they are available to plants in the right form. These
resources sound the warning bell (through pollution) only when they
are wasted and appear at the wrong place. Every form of pollution,
thus, should be seen as an opportunity to generate resources. Putting
a catalytic converter after the automobile engine does not generate
resources; it just traps the pollutants. The device should come
before the engine, to improve the fuel quality so that the improved
fuel produces a clean exhaust and higher mileage/power. Nitrates
(and related nitrogen compounds such as nitrogen oxides, ammonia,
nitrites, etc.) create pollution in air, rain, soil, food, water,
and organisms including human beings. When nitrates get wasted,
equivalent amount of carbon dioxide appears in the atmosphere, only
to become a greenhouse gas that causes global warming. This also
creates oxygen-deficient air that attracts pests. No wonder, we
use oxygen-producing chemical sanitizers, such as potassium permanganate,
hydrogen peroxide or chlorine/hypochlorite.
3. Plants fall prey to pest attack when they are fed with nitrates
in excess of their metabolic requirements(Bhawalkar, 1997). Pests
are thus an indication that plants have been fed with excessive
amounts of nitrates, which is a waste of resources. If, instead
of taking appropriate steps to reduce this, pesticides are used,
they produce plant products that are polluted not only with nitrates
but also pesticides. These harm us further, to give us more serious
4. Food gets spoiled during storage mainly because of nitrates(Bhawalkar,
1997). Loss due to pest infestation, too, is an indication of nitrate
pollution of food. Nature uses these mechanisms to destroy food
that is harmful to man. Nature has evolved from high pollution to
low pollution that is suitable to man. When fruits grow on trees,
other creatures are attracted to them first, if the food belongs
to their niche. Whatever is left is good for man. If we interfere
in this design of nature, human behavior gets spoiled. Bad habits
such as littering, spitting, etc. can be attributed to nitrates.
The six main vices of man – kaama (lust), krodha (anger),
lobha (greed), mada (arrogance) moha (delusion), and matsara (jealousy)
– which in turn lead to himsa (violence) are due to the consumption
of food, water, and air polluted with nitrates. Physical health
problems are a means to arrest such polluted persons and keep them
in at home or hospital while the disease-causing organisms clean
the nitrates from the person’s body. Suppressing the problems
of the physical body with medicines only leads to increased lust,
greed, and violence that we see in society today.
5. Garbage and sewage quality depends on the food quality and when
food is polluted with nitrates, garbage and sewage also get polluted.
It is this nitrate pollution that causes all the problems of garbage,
sewage, and other organic wastes. Products (milk, urine, dung) coming
from the Holy cow fed on natural grass diet are free of nitrates.
These are used as medicine in our culture because they, in fact,
have natural enzymes to trap nitrates. These properties are lost
when the cow is fed with more nitrates and proteins to accelerate
growth and increase milk production. This has eventually led to
the Mad Cow Disease in the western world.
6. Garbage and sewage treatment should focus on nitrates. Since this
is difficult, most of the current technologies achieve what is easier.
They burn organics (producing carbon dioxide and waste heat) and
in fact, reduce the food/nitrate ratio. The aim should be to increase
this ratio because low ratio is ideal for the growth of pests such
as flies and mosquitoes. Pathogens come at very low ratio (less
than 30). Treated sewage and rainwater is an ideal medium for the
growth of malaria/dengue mosquitoes whereas raw sewage can breed
ordinary mosquitoes. Fish need sewage with a food/nitrate ratio
more than 200. Cow-dung has this ratio and hence is used in aquaculture
to help fish production. All the attempts to clean the Holy Ganga
have failed because they spoiled the river by reducing the food/nitrate
7. The invisible automobile pollution due to nitrogen oxides in the
exhaust is far more harmful than the visible smoke (carbon) pollution.
CNG and LPG, thus, are not clean fuels; they are more dangerous
because they produce invisible pollution. Fossil fuels should first
be cleaned (their nitrates removed) before they are used. Fossil
fuels are produced in polluted (oxygen-deficient) environment, and
cause pollution of air, rain, soil, food, water, and organisms.
8. Rain is clean and regular if the air is clean. This rain seeps readily
into the soil – preventing runoff, soil erosion, and floods
– and helps replenish the groundwater reserve with clean water.
Rainfall becomes erratic(this is bad for agriculture) when air is
excessively polluted with nitrogen oxides. Such rain is polluted
with nitrates and does not seep readily into the soil. This leads
to soil erosion and floods during rainy season and droughts during
summer. Soil is a place to produce nitrates in a need-based manner,
through the work of soil-burrowing earthworms and beneficial soil
bacteria associated with them(Bhawalkar,1997). Soil needs a feed
of organic matter. Rain, garbage, and sewage polluted with nitrates
cannot be used by healthy living soil. When nitrates are fed to
the soil, soil biodiversity gets severely reduced, soil loses its
ability to produce nitrates and becomes dependent on external supply.
Use of urea has, thus, become necessary after soil has been spoiled
by rain that was polluted by the burning of fossil fuels in the
West. Warmer regions of the world suffer more because nitrates create
more problems at higher temperatures than they do in cold regions.
This is why hazards of nitrates are not fully acknowledged in the
western world. Technologies from cold region cannot be used to solve
the pollution problems of warm region.
and the authors’ nitrate model have been used to develop BIOSANITIZER
that converts pollution into resources. This has been field-tested
for the past 9 years.
granules convert polluted water into clean water, which also becomes
a resource for ecosanitation. This action can be summarized as follows:
problems arise due to nitrates, hence nitrate management is crucial.
- Conventional nitrate management techniques consume organic food
and oxygen, to produce CO2 and waste heat. Nature prefers another
reaction, i.e., combining nitrates, CO2 and waste heat to produce
organics and oxygen. This is a resource-generating mechanism,
while conventional denitrification is a wasteful reaction.
- BIOSANITIZER is a natural catalyst; 1 gram of this product has
the capacity of 1 acre of rich forest, in terms of its nitrate
control, CO2 trapping and oxygen production.
- By adding BIOSANITIZER in a stream of polluted water, we get not
only clean water, but the treated water also becomes a resource
has been used successfully in several field-scale projects to demonstrate
its efficacy. Some examples are listed in this section.
Control in Aquaculture: BIOSANITIZER was applied, in 1997,
in a commercial prawn farm where the production was reduced due
to viral attack. It is well understood in the aquaculture industry
that management of nitrates (and other nitrogen species such as
ammonia, nitrites, etc.) is a key to healthy prawn/fish growth.
Increase in the nitrogen load reduces the dissolved oxygen (DO)
level, particularly during the night when algal oxygen production
stops. At low DO concentrations, prawns are under stress, which
reduces their resistance to viruses. Virus is a wasteful mechanism
of nature that uses nitrates but does not produce any resources.
It is an alarm indicating that the nitrate level is high. The nitrate
overload, and hence the viral problem was solved by use of BIOSANITIZER,
at the rate of 1 gram per acre of pond (2-3 meters deep). Because
of the oxygen production by the BIOSANITIZER, the food chain that
converts prawn waste into prawn food also got triggered. Expenses
on prawn feed thus got reduced. This resulted in higher food conversion
ratio and higher profit for the prawn farmer. The need to change
the polluted water from the pond was also reduced, because prawn
waste was feeding the algal food chain that produced the prawn food.
Thus, waste of one process was utilized to feed another useful process.
In conventional waste treatment, both organics and nitrates are
destroyed to clean the water, which amounts to spending more resources
to destroy wasted resources.
Treatment: Taj Hotel at Madurai(in India) had set up a
conventional sewage treatment plant wherein a compressor was to
be used to inject air into diffuser pipes submerged in the aeration
tank. This plant was retrofitted with BIOSANITIZER, in 1997, and
aeration system was turned off. BIOSANITIZER was able to produce
tertiary treated sewage without any recurring charges, also without
producing any sludge and greenhouse gases. The aeration tank developed
a floating scum that supported a floating garden. The project has
been working satisfactorily for 7 years now, and has been monitored
by the Tamil Nadu Pollution Control Board. The treated water is
used for gardening. It has reduced inputs on fertilizers because
the treated oxygen-rich water acts as a bio-stimulant to the plant
life. It also helps reduce pest problems, thus achieving ecosanitation.
Clean-up: Powai Lake of Mumbai and Pashan Lake of Pune
were successfully treated with a one-time dose of BIOSANITIZER.
Both the lakes were getting sewage streams into them, rainwater
coming only for about 60 days of the year. Powai Lake water quality
was monitored by the Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay, and
that of Pashan Lake was monitored by the Pune Municipal Corporation
(PMC). Water hyacinth and mosquito breeding were controlled in both
the lakes. Instead, useful vegetation such as lotus plants and fodder
grass have started growing. They are being regularly harvested as
a resource. The bottom mud also became clean; it supported silky
lawn grass (and not thorny/poisonous plants) when the lake bottom
was exposed to sunlight in the summer. Lake mud also became soft
and suitable for Ganesh idols. These observations indicate that
after surface water gets cleaned, Nature starts cleaning the bottom
of the water bodies. Silky grass can grow, without weeds, only on
the clean soils. Earthworms also appear in such soils; they grind
soil particles down to one micron, making the soil suitable for
of Sewers: After the death of four municipal workers, in
1997, in the sewer system near a public toilet in Pune, BIOSANITIZER
was used by the PMC. The death was due to the generation of toxic
gases such as hydrogen sulfide, mercaptans, etc. due to high nitrate-loading
from the public toilet. BIOSANITIZER solved the problem by locking
the nitrates and producing oxygen in the process. BIOSANITIZER action
was immediate, and one could note the reduction in the toxic gases
and oxygen production within a few minutes.
was observed that by adding the BIOSANITIZER catalyst granules at
the higher level of the sewer system, one can start sewage treatment
by using the sewers as bioreactors. The sewers were observed to
remain relatively free of sewer corrosion, foul gases and scavenging
creatures such as cockroaches, rats, redworms - were not readily
of Sewage Streams(Nallas): When a city has unplanned fast
growth, sewage is seen to flow to the river or lake via natural
streams which also carry stormwater during rainy season. Rain is
seasonal (for about 60 days) in most of India; during the rest of
the year these streams carry sewage. Being deprived of oxygen, the
water turns black (due to formation of metal sulfides). No vegetation
can survive within about 10 m of these anaerobic sewage streams.
One-time input of BIOSANITIZER near the starting points of eight
such natural drains in Pune, resulted in oxygen-rich streams within
a few hours. The redox potential was found to improve from minus
300 to plus 100 within a few days. This shows oxygen production.
The streams developed a pale green tinge, instead of black color.
Bird life started returning. Healthy air also changed the vegetation
along the streams, and PMC constructed Nalla Parks along their banks.
The construction cost of these Nalla Parks was insignificant because
the healthy atmosphere created by the oxygen-rich streams had a
tonic effect on vegetation, in particular on the lawn grass. Pune’s
Mula-Mutha river which carries about 800 MLD of sewage also showed
oxygen-rich environment, from which water hyacinth disappeared and
healthy organisms (including bird life) appeared. Floating oily
layer disappeared and the water surface had mirror-like smooth appearance.
The water quality was found to be that of tertiary treated sewage,
though there was hardly any formal sewage treatment through conventional
means. This BIOSANITIZER effect has sustained for the past 8 years,
in spite of annual floods. The river bed hosts a circus now each
year. It has become the most popular spot in the city, because of
the fresh oxy-rich atmosphere. One can see the crowd on the food
joints there, till the midnight. The dry river-bed grows green grass
throughout the year, without any irrigation. This suggests that
irrigation need of plants increases with the pollution level of
air , soil or water. By using the ecosanitation techniques, we can
conserve water in agriculture and have more output from a given
amount of water. This is easy to appreciate because it is well known
fact that organic agriculture is water-conserving, whereas chemical
agriculture needs higher amount of irrigation.
Sewage Treatment: Ten decentralized sewage treatment projects
were set up in and near Pune, to treat the sewage generated by urban
buildings and industries. The projects were simple, amounting to
applying a one-time dose of BIOSANITIZER in the septic tank. There
is no need to de-sludge these units and the oxy-rich water coming
out of these units also becomes an asset for gardening and ecosanitation.
Its spray helps control odor, pathogens, and pests in the environment.
Architects and builders are now coming forward to incorporate sewage
recycling by each building, thus reducing the expenditure on sewers
and sewage pumping. In fact, sewage recycling has become mandatory
in Pune, at least for big buildings(that is, with more than 150
Centre for Science and Environment, the winner of the Stockholm
Water Prize 2005, has produced “A Wastewater Recycling Manual
for Urban Areas, with Case Studies” (CSE,2005). It gives a
comparative evaluation of conventional and emerging natural treatment
technologies. BIOSANITIZER technology stands out as the most cost-effective,
practical, resource-generating technology.
two running wastewater treatment projects in the USA, and two more
under construction, the BIOSANITIZER technology is being launched
in the US. The US Environmental Protection Agency and UNICEF have
shown interest in the technology.
Garbage Composting Units: More than 10,000 decentralized
garbage composting projects have been set up in Pune and other cities,
in India. The technology is also exported to other regions such
as EU(Ireland) and USA. The method is to apply BIOSANITIZER to clean
the groundwater/surface-water(including sewage) and spray the treated
oxygen-rich water on the garbage heap each day to ensure eco-friendly
bioconversion into compost. It is found that there is absence of
odor, pathogens, and pests. There is no heat generation and production
of greenhouse gases is minimal. The yield of the compost is about
70%, which is much higher than about 30% when garbage is composted
without the use of BIOSANITIZER. The loss is primarily due to higher
production of CO2 in the conventional processes. BIOSANTIZER technology,
can thus, avail the carbon credits, making it more cost-effective
to the user.
Petroleum Conservation and Research Association(PCRA), a wing of
Ministry of Petroleum, Government of India, has taken up active
promotion of decentralized garbage composting, using the BIOSANITIZER
technology. It has become important now, to avoid unnecessary transport
of garbage and compost and also reduce the consumption of the petroleum
feedstock for the production of chemical fertilizers and pesticides.
Both these objectives can be met just by recycling garbage into
compost, in a decentralized manner, using the BIOSANITIZER technology.
or hospital waste is considered a hazardous waste. Incineration
is seen as the safest way to get rid of pathogens and toxic chemicals
in it. But one should note that this can only result in the production
of higher amount of nitrogen oxides, carbon dioxide and dioxins(if
plastics, such as PVC, also get incinerated along with it). This
can produce more health problems to the society by production of
toxic rain. Six hospital waste recycling units were installed and
operated in and near the Pune city. The Department of Microbiology
in Pune’s B. J. Medical College evaluated the system for four
years and concluded that BIOSANITIZER produced safe compost. Air
and soil near the units was also safe. Even viruses such as the
hepatitis virus were controlled without any recurring inputs and
without producing any air pollution. Avoiding unnecessary handling
and transport of the hazardous waste - is the main advantage of
Rainwater Harvesting and Flood Control: Soil has
a built-in mechanism to restrict the entry of polluted water into
groundwater. Soil, thus, can soak in just 10 mm/d of polluted water.
After applying BIOSANITIZER in the surface water pool, one can find
that water starts penetrating much faster, upto 1000 mm/d. This
was the rain of July 26, 2005 deluge in the Powai-Vihar lake area
of Mumbai. One can thus use the BIOSANITIZER not only for treatment
of water, but also for effective rainwater harvesting and flood
control. One can subsequently use the stored groundwater that is
also a resource for ecosanitation.
of Saline and Brackish Groundwater: About 2,000 farmers
and industries have used BIOSANITIZER(refined grade) to treat saline/brackish
groundwater. A one-time dose was applied into a well/borewell. BIOSANITIZER
granules operate from the bottom and keep on producing oxygen. This
drives the natural reactions that convert the salty/brackish water
sweet, both for the tongue as well as for the plants. This water
also resists scaling, corrosion and growth of pathogens/pests. It
becomes a resource for organic agriculture and ecosanitation. The
mechanism is similar to that used by the coconut tree in converting
saline/brackish water into sweet coconut water.
of Fossil Fuels: BIOSANITIZER catalyst granules were added
in the fuel tanks of stationary/mobile I.C. engines. Several improvements
occurred, such as extra mileage, extra engine power, cooler/quieter
engine, and lower repair/maintenance expenses. The benefits depend
upon the fuel quality. The exhaust from these vehicles is cleaner
and cooler and also has ecosanitation effect. BIOSANITIZER thus
carries out reactions similar to the Vedic yajnya, thus producing
healing gases, instead of polluting gases.
Management: The utility of the BIOSANITIZER technology
was well demonstrated after the July 26, 2005 deluge in Mumbai,
when it rained about 1000 mm in a day. Accumulated garbage heaps
and dead carcasses of animals created sanitation hazards in Mumbai.
Special bio-spray was created by combining BIOSANITIZER with a 100
ppm solution of calcium nitrate. This was sprayed on stinking garbage
heaps and animal carcasses. The results of ecosanitation achieved
were dramatic, as seen by control of odor, pathogens and pests.
This was a joint project of Green Cross Society of Mumbai, Bombay
Municipal Corporation(BMC) and Indian Express Initiative. The operation
was also extended in the jurisdiction of Vasai Municipal Council
where dead buffaloes were dumped and their neglect could have created
conditions suitable for plague. It was also found that polluted
water ponds started generating ripples of oxygen production, within
a few minutes of application of BIOSANITIZER granules into the pond.
The healthy gases produced healthy growth of food crops in the region,
mosquitoes were reduced and the pond water started going down. Nature
allows higher percolation rate as soon as the water quality improves.
The neighboring well that was heavily polluted, soon started producing
way to manage disasters, however is to go to their root cause and
prevent their occurrence in the first place. One may say that natural
disasters are inevitable. But Eco-Logic tells us that all unpleasant
events serve as warning bells, some also serve to punish us if we
refuse to listen to the mild warning bells. They, thus, are all
man-made nowadays, and are the indicators of our wasteful habits
of neglecting natural resources. If the events are natural, they
should occur at the same frequency over the years, like the eclipses.
But the hurricanes, earthquakes, forest fires, floods, droughts
and epidemics are coming with increasing frequency during this century.
Hence, they are more due to human interference, than due to natural
Alfred Nobel found the destructive power of nitrates and created
explosives by formulating the nitrates and a triggering carbon compound.
The reaction is almost like a nuclear reaction, the science of it
is not well discussed. When we allow the leakage of nitrates in
our oceans, groundwater, etc. they work by the same mechanism and
produce destructive energy that is visible in hurricanes and earthquakes.
One can, now, replace this mechanism with the resource-generating
mechanism of the BIOSANITIZER. This way, we not only can prevent
these destructive events, but also generate ten times higher value
of resources, than the losses that can be inflicted by these events.
Forest fires are due to the build-up of nitrates in a forest leaf-litter.
Just as the nitrate-rich compost heaps are known to exhibit auto-ignition,
the nitrate-rich heaps of leaf litter encourage auto-ignition and
start the forest fires. Even a heavy downpour can fail to stop the
forest fires. But one can now use the BIOSANITIZER in the forest
as pretreatment, few months advance of the summer, or resort to
spraying of BIOSANITIZER spray when the forest is already on fire.
are due to increased air pollution, they also are followed by long
dry period. Floods and droughts, thus, go hand in hand. One can
reduce the air pollution and have a well-distributed rain pattern,
that too of low nitrates. This gets readily soaked into the ground,
thus avoiding floods. The stored ground-water, becomes available
as a water-source in the summer and thus avoid the drought.
epidemics, such as the bird flue are due to overloading our food
with nitrates. Each virus needs a bandwidth of nitrates. Only when
our body goes into this high bandwidth, we get affected. By using
the BIOSANITIZER to treat the animal feed, their drinking water
and also by using the BIOSANITIZED water for our drinking, cooking,
cleaning, etc… it will be quite easy to stay healthy and not
worry about the emerging modern epidemics.
using BIOSANITIZER is more than just cleaning pollution; it turns
pollution into resources. It conserves the good components of waste
streams, converts harmful ones into useful ones, and produced a
resource using the Nature’s principles that have evolved on
this earth over millennia. The author strongly recommends discontinuing
the use of resource-guzzling treatment technologies of the past
and use ecosanitation techniques that convert all negatives into
positives. BIOSANITIZER is one such solution.
U.S.(1997)Vermiculture Bioconversion of Organic Residues, PhD
thesis, Chemical Engineering Department, IIT Bombay, Mumbai.
A Wastewater Recycling Manual for Urban Areas, with Case Studies,
published by The Centre for Science and Environment, New Delhi.
P. H.(1995)Infectious AIDS- Have We Been Misled? North Atlantic
Books, Berkeley, CA.